Git 高级玩法

Git Blame

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# 查看文件中,每一行的修改人和最后改动时间
$ git blame pom.xml
^e81ccde3 (BenedictJin 2018-06-04 11:16:19 +0800 1) <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

Git Branch

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# 克隆当前分支,以此创建新的 branch,并切换
$ git checkout -b <branch>
# 重命名 branch 名称
$ git branch -m <old_name> <new_name>
$ git branch -m <new_name>
# 恢复删除掉的 branch
# 查看你上一次 commit SHA1 值
$ git reflog
# 恢复
$ git branch <branch_name> <sha1>

Git Cache

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# 添加 .gitignore 文件之后,可能有些文件报错 `ignored tracked with git`
# 需要用 `git rm --cached` 进行删除
$ git rm --cached <file>
# 部分动态文件可能报错文件内容不一致 `the following files have staged content different from both the file and the HEAD`
# 需要增加 `-f` 参数进行强制删除
$ git rm --cached -f .idea/workspace.xml

Git Cherry-pick

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# 从远程仓库中,指定某一次提交,合并到当前分支中
$ git cherry-pick 5738c801c

Git Checkout

checkout 的同时,创建新的 branch

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$ git checkout -b <new_branch_new>

撤销某个文件的修改

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$ git checkout -- <file>

Git Config

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$ git config user.name "asdf2014"
$ git config user.email "yuzhouwan@gmail.com"
$ git reset .
$ git add -A
$ git diff --staged

Git Commit

Commit Merge

常规操作

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$ git log --pretty=oneline
651cc60d971aba93bdde645b6331c33068462645 Merge branch 'master' of https://github.com/asdf2014/superset
415610958494446ccd37c0c87da98eba56af42ac Merge branch 'temp'
b881140282893fa4add183a2b3f2637968f95069 Merge branch 'master' into master
f2bf3160583533bd0dc5004f248f81251aa8c57e Add NUMERIC num_type (#2127)
6a0fefdbd542da4ea313313a191eadd1efe58faa Using the time zone with specific name for querying Druid
9cd38fa1eda63152c27b76c29dd948f29444b686 little code refactor in models.py (#2124)
$ git reset --soft HEAD~2 &&
$ git commit --edit -m "$($ git log --format=%B --reverse HEAD..HEAD@{1})"
[master fd41c16] Add NUMERIC num_type (#2127)
1 file changed, 1 insertion(+), 1 deletion(-)
# 更改之后的 commit 信息
fd41c1608579408fcd26d0dd03adf0d461599101 Add NUMERIC num_type (#2127)
6a0fefdbd542da4ea313313a191eadd1efe58faa Using the time zone with specific name for querying Druid
9cd38fa1eda63152c27b76c29dd948f29444b686 little code refactor in models.py (#2124)

踩到的坑

Failed to push some refs
描述
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Username for 'https://github.com': asdf2014
To https://github.com/asdf2014/superset.git
! [rejected] ext_deprecation_warning -> ext_deprecation_warning (non-fast-forward)
error: failed to push some refs to 'https://github.com/asdf2014/superset.git'
hint: Updates were rejected because the tip of your current branch is behind
hint: its remote counterpart. Integrate the remote changes (e.g.
hint: '$ git pull ...') before pushing again.
hint: See the 'Note about fast-forwards' in '$ git push --help' for details.
解决
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# 强制提交
$ git push -u origin ext_deprecation_warning --force

Commit Remove

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$ git reset --hard <sha1-commit-id>
$ git push origin HEAD --force

Commit Change

只修改最后一次提交

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# 格式
$ git commit --amend
$ git commit --amend -m "New commit message"
$ git commit --amend --author="Author Name <email@address.com>"
# 示例
$ git commit --amend -m 'remove warnings.simplefilter from cli.py into superset for PEP (#2137)'
$ git commit --amend --author="asdf2014 <yuzhouwan@gmail.com>"

修改之前的提交信息

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$ git rebase -i HEAD~2
pick xxxx
reword yyyy

修改提交的日期

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# 查看当前时间
$ date -R
Mon, 07 Jan 2018 11:12:55 +0800
# 修改最后一次 commit 的提交日期
$ git commit --amend --date="Mon, 07 Jan 2018 12:00:00 +0800"
# 更新提交日期为当前时间
$ git commit --amend --date="$(date -R)"

Reset into Specific Commit

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# It will make your local code and local history be just like it was at that commit. But then if you wanted to push this to someone else who has the new history, it would fail.
$ git reset --hard c14809fa
# It will make your local files changed to be like they were then, but leave your history etc. the same.
$ git reset --soft c14809fa

Squash Commits into a Single Commit

常规操作

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# 查看哪些 commits 需要进行合并
$ git log --pretty=oneline
# 合并最后 11 个 commit
$ git rebase -i HEAD~11
pick xxxx yyyy
pick xxxx yyyy
pick xxxx yyyy
# 将需要压缩的 commit 之前的 `pick` 替换为 `squash`
pick xxxx yyyy
squash xxxx yyyy
squash xxxx yyyy
$ git commit --amend -m 'The log length has exceeded the limit of 4 MB in Travis'
$ git push origin travis_log --force
# 如需解决冲突后,继续进行 rebase 操作,可执行
$ git rebase --continue
# 如果想中断 rebase 操作,则执行
$ git rebase --abort
# 更多细节
$ git rebase --help

其他

回滚
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$ git reset --hard ORIG_HEAD
回滚上一次操作
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$ git commit -m "Something terribly misguided"
$ git reset HEAD~
<< edit files as necessary >>
$ git add ...
$ git commit -c ORIG_HEAD
指定 commit number
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$ git rebase <commit number>
合并 branch 改动到 master 中
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# 会将 branch 里的 commit 排到 master 的顶部,避免带 Merge 信息的 `空 commit` 出现
$ git checkout <branch name>
$ git rebase -i master
# 如果已经在当前 branch 执行了 git merge master,并解决了冲突,可以直接执行下面这行命令,完成 rebase 操作
$ git rebase --root --onto master --preserve-merges
# 万一出现太多的问题,难以解决,可以采用如下暴力的方式(在意 commit 信息的,请预先备份好)
$ git rebase --abort # 首先 abort 之前的 rebase 流程
$ git checkout code_refactoring
$ git checkout -b re2
$ git branch root bbb61e638b391d29 # 以当前 branch 未做任何修改之前的 commit 为基础,创建 root 分支
$ git checkout re2
$ git diff master > ../123.patch # 当前 branch 相对 master 已经做的修改打出 patch 文件
$ git checkout master
$ git checkout -b r2
$ git apply ../123.patch # 以 master 为基础,apply 分支上做的修改
$ git diff master
$ git status
$ git diff --name-status | wc -l # 确认修改的文件数 是否正确
$ git add .
$ git status
$ git diff master
$ git commit -m 'Improve `collection` related things that reusing a immutable object instead of creating a new object'
$ git status
$ git push origin r2:code_refactoring -f

Git Diff

Git diff two commits

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$ git diff 1285c982 b0aaa7de > v3.4.6_vs_v3.4.10.patch

Git diff two branchs

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$ git diff branch_1..branch_2

Git Fetch

Normal

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# Github 上对某一个开源项目进行 fork
https://github.com/apache/superset
https://github.com/asdf2014/superset (forked from apache/superset)
# 本地获取 fork 出来的 asdf2014/superset
$ git init
$ git remote add origin https://github.com/asdf2014/superset.git
$ git remote -v
origin https://github.com/asdf2014/superset.git (fetch)
origin https://github.com/asdf2014/superset.git (push)
## 发现并没有 airbnb/superset 的 origin/master,可以在直接往 asdf2014/superset 提交,然后在 github 上进行 pull request 的创建
https://github.com/apache/superset/pull/2136 (Fix werkzeug instance was created twice in Debug Mode (#2135) #2136)
$ git fetch https://github.com/apache/superset.git master:tmp
$ git diff tmp
$ git merge tmp
$ git branch -d tmp

Fetch all tags

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$ git fetch --tags
$ git checkout tags/release-3.4.6
$ git checkout master
Previous HEAD position was 1285c982... ZooKeeper 3.4.6 release.
Switched to branch 'master'

Git reflog

恢复 git reset --hard

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# 找到 reset 操作的
$ git reflog
2a93709d (HEAD -> yuzhouwan, origin/yuzhouwan) HEAD@{0}: reset: moving to 631cc5233063bb014587a9caf0c9e3095fe6a60e
b5b67779 HEAD@{1}: commit: Something important
# 回滚到 reset 操作前的一次提交
$ git reset --hard b5b67779

Git Remote

Change remote url

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$ git remote set-url origin <url>

Pull specific tag from remote

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$ git pull origin release-1.7.7:release-1.7.7

Git Reset

回退某一个文件的修改

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$ git reset HEAD^ yuzhouwan.txt

Git Rm

清理缓存

描述

 某些已经被加到 .gitignore 的文件提示,ignored, tracked with git

解决

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# 单个文件
$ git rm --cached <file>
# 整个项目
$ git rm -r --cached .
# add 变更内容,并切换到 tmp 分支,commit 后,再删除 tmp 分支
$ git add .
$ git checkout -b tmp
$ git commit -m 'Remove ignored files'
$ git checkout master
$ git branch -D tmp

Git Stash

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# 查看当前分支已经存在的改动
$ git status
On branch exception_governance
Your branch is up to date with 'origin/exception_governance'.
Changes to be committed:
(use "git reset HEAD <file>..." to unstage)
new file: a
# 临时保存当前分支的修改
$ git stash
Saved working directory and index state WIP on exception_governance: d5062a04 Govern old error codes and their exceptions
# 查看已经临时保存的改动
$ git stash list
stash@{0}: WIP on exception_governance: d5062a04 Govern old error codes and their exceptions
# 已经看到修改已经被隐藏了
$ git add .
$ git diff --staged
# 再次从 stash 中恢复出之前的修改
$ git stash pop
On branch exception_governance
Your branch is up to date with 'origin/exception_governance'.
Changes to be committed:
(use "git reset HEAD <file>..." to unstage)
new file: a
Dropped refs/stash@{0} (a88e4f6d681eb59b9b22e800f2c00f4c9e22d529)

Git Tag

Create tag

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# 创建简单的标签
$ git tag v0.0.1
# 创建带有附注的 tag
$ git tag -a v0.0.2 -m "v0.0.2"
# 展示 tag 信息
$ git show v0.0.2
# 给指定的 commit,打 tag
$ git tag -a v0.0.3 6d23400

Submit tag

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$ git push origin v0.0.2
# push 本地所有标签
$ git push origin –tags

Pull with specific tag

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$ git clone
# 列出 tag 列表,并 checkout 到指定的 tag
$ git tag -l
$ git checkout tags/<tag_name>
# checkout 到指定的 tag,并创建一个新的 branch
$ git checkout tags/<tag_name> -b <branch_name>

Delete tag

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# 删除本地 Tag
$ git tag -d v3.4.6.0
Deleted tag 'v3.4.6.0' (was 0e48a03a)
# 删除远程 Tag
$ git push origin :refs/tags/v3.4.6.0
To http://github.com/asdf2014/zookeeper.git
- [deleted] v3.4.6.0

Git 编辑器切换为 Notepad++

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# 命令行设置
$ git config --global core.editor "'D:/apps/Notepad++/notepad++.exe' -multiInst -notabbar -nosession -noPlugin"
# 修改配置文件
$ vim ~/.gitconfig
[core]
editor = 'D:/apps/Notepad++/notepad++.exe' -multiInst -notabbar -nosession -noPlugin

Git 代理

通过命令设置

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$ git config --global http.proxy 'http://192.168.1.101:8888'
$ git config --global https.proxy 'https://192.168.1.101:8888'
$ git config --global http.proxy 'socks5://127.0.0.1:1080'
$ git config --global https.proxy 'socks5://127.0.0.1:1080'

通过配置文件设置

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$ vim ~/.ssh/config
[http]
proxy = http://192.168.1.101:8888
[https]
proxy = https://192.168.1.101:8888
# [http]
# proxy = socks5://127.0.0.1:1080
# [https]
# proxy = socks5://127.0.0.1:1080

踩过的坑

SSL_ERROR_SYSCALL in connection to git.coding.net:443

描述
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$ git push origin master
Counting objects: 9, done.
Delta compression using up to 4 threads.
Compressing objects: 100% (9/9), done.
Writing objects: 100% (9/9), 1.05 KiB | 1.05 MiB/s, done.
Total 9 (delta 6), reused 0 (delta 0)
error: RPC failed; curl 35 OpenSSL SSL_connect: SSL_ERROR_SYSCALL in connection to git.coding.net:443
fatal: The remote end hung up unexpectedly
fatal: The remote end hung up unexpectedly
Everything up-to-date
解决
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# 先确保 git 和 curl 版本不能过低,如果 git <2.60 或者 curl <7.29,则需要升级到最新版本
$ git --version
$ curl --version
# 打开 git 命令的 trace 日志
$ export GIT_CURL_VERBOSE=1
$ export GIT_TRACE_PACKET=2
# 再次执行出错命令
$ git push origin master
// ...
error: RPC failed; curl 7 Failed to connect to 127.0.0.1 port 1080: Connection refused
fatal: The remote end hung up unexpectedly
Everything up-to-date
# 通过日志分析,定位出是 proxy 的问题,关闭 proxy 即可
参考

Git 中文乱码

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$ git config --global core.quotepath false # 显示 status 编码
$ git config --global gui.encoding utf-8 # 图形界面编码
$ git config --global i18n.commit.encoding utf-8 # 提交信息编码
$ git config --global i18n.logoutputencoding utf-8 # 输出 log 编码
$ export LESSCHARSET=utf-8 # `git log` 默认使用 `less` 分页,所以需要 `bash` 对 `less` 命令进行 `utf-8` 编码
# 让 `ls` 命令可以显示中文名称
$ vim %GIT_HOME%\mingw64\share\git\completion\git-completion.bash
# 在文件末尾处添加一行
alias ls="ls --show-control-chars --color"

Github 加速

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# Ctrl + R(管理员权限运行)
# notepad "%SystemRoot%\system32\drivers\etc\hosts"
# https://asm.ca.com/zh_cn/ping.php
192.30.253.112 github.com
151.101.56.133 assets-cdn.github.com
192.30.253.116 api.github.com
192.30.253.121 codeload.github.com
# 中国 - 香港特别行政区(hkhkg02)
192.30.253.112 github.com
151.101.100.133 assets-cdn.github.com
192.30.253.116 api.github.com
192.30.253.121 codeload.github.com

Patch

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$ git diff > patch
$ git apply patch

参考

SSH 免密

常规操作

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# 如果没有 .ssh 隐藏文件,则需要先打开 `git bash`,并执行
$ mkdir ~/.ssh
$ chmod +700 ~/.ssh
$ cd ~/.ssh
$ ssh-keygen -t rsa -C "yuzhouwan@email.com"
# 将 ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub 中的公钥加入 github/gitlab
$ ssh -T git@github.com
Hi asdf2014! You've successfully authenticated, but GitHub does not provide shell access. '
# http -> ssh
$ git remote -v
origin https://github.com/asdf2014/yuzhouwan (fetch)
origin https://github.com/asdf2014/yuzhouwan (push)
$ git remote set-url origin git@github.com:asdf2014/yuzhouwan.git
$ git remote -v
origin git@github.com:asdf2014/yuzhouwan.git (fetch)
origin git@github.com:asdf2014/yuzhouwan.git (push)

如何在代理环境下,同时支持 github / gitlab / coding 的免密操作

场景介绍

  • github.comcoding.net 需要走代理访问
  • gitlab 是自建的私服

PAC 配置

 在任何 git 相关操作之前,需要先配置 PAC 文件,来保证本机网络的畅通

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var domains = {
"coding.net": 1,
"git.coding.net": 1,
"github.com": 1,
"ssh.github.com": 1
};
var proxy = "__PROXY__";
var direct = 'DIRECT;';
var hasOwnProperty = Object.hasOwnProperty;
function FindProxyForURL(url, host) {
var suffix;
var pos = host.lastIndexOf('.');
pos = host.lastIndexOf('.', pos - 1);
while(1) {
if (pos <= 0) {
if (hasOwnProperty.call(domains, host)) {
return proxy;
} else {
return direct;
}
}
suffix = host.substring(pos + 1);
if (hasOwnProperty.call(domains, suffix)) {
return proxy;
}
pos = host.lastIndexOf('.', pos - 1);
}
}

SSH 配置

 在配置 SSH 之前,同样需要保证 ssh 命令使用的网络代理是正确的

 首先,找到 connect 命令安装路径

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$ which connect
/mingw64/bin/connect
$ which connect.exe
/mingw64/bin/connect.exe

 其次,修改 ~/.ssh/config 文件

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Host github.com
User git
Port 22
Hostname github.com
IdentityFile ~/.ssh/id_rsa # 这里也可以填写绝对路径
TCPKeepAlive yes
IdentitiesOnly yes
ProxyCommand /mingw64/bin/connect.exe -H 127.0.0.1:1080 %h %p
Host ssh.github.com
User git
Port 443
Hostname ssh.github.com
IdentityFile ~/.ssh/id_rsa
TCPKeepAlive yes
IdentitiesOnly yes
ProxyCommand /mingw64/bin/connect.exe -H 127.0.0.1:1080 %h %p
Host git.coding.net
User <email> # coding.net 这里比较特殊,需要填写注册的邮箱地址
PreferredAuthentications publickey
IdentityFile ~/.ssh/id_rsa
TCPKeepAlive yes
IdentitiesOnly yes
ProxyCommand /mingw64/bin/connect.exe -H 127.0.0.1:1080 %h %p
Host yuzhouwan.gitlab.com
User git
Port 22
Hostname yuzhouwan.gitlab.com
IdentityFile ~/.ssh/id_rsa
TCPKeepAlive yes
IdentitiesOnly yes

 然后,生成私钥、公钥,并分别拷贝公钥到 github / gitlab / coding 服务器中,具体操作见上文描述

 最后,验证

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$ ssh -T git@github.com
Hi asdf2014! You've successfully authenticated, but GitHub does not provide shell access.
$ ssh -T git@yuzhouwan.gitlab.com
Welcome to GitLab, BenedictJin!
$ ssh -T git@git.coding.net
Coding 提示: Hello BenedictJin, You've connected to Coding.net via SSH. This is a personal key.
BenedictJin,你好,你已经通过 SSH 协议认证 Coding.net 服务,这是一个个人公钥

保持从 fork 端更新代码

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# 申明 fork 端的仓库地址
$ git remote add upstream git@gitlab.yuzhouwan.com:asdf2014/yuzhouwan.git
# check 是否添加正确
$ git remote -v
origin git@gitlab.yuzhouwan.com:asdf2018/yuzhouwan.git (fetch)
origin git@gitlab.yuzhouwan.com:asdf2018/yuzhouwan.git (push)
upstream git@gitlab.yuzhouwan.com:asdf2014/yuzhouwan.git (fetch)
upstream git@gitlab.yuzhouwan.com:asdf2014/yuzhouwan.git (push)
# 更新所有的分支
$ git fetch upstream
# 指定更新某一个分支,这里以 master 分支为例
$ git fetch upstream master
# 使用 fork 端的 master 分支进行 rebase
$ git rebase upstream/master

代码风格配置

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Intellij Idea
# download: http://www.arminalter.com/public/img/attach/checkstyle/eclipse-java-google-style.xml
File - Settings - Editor - Code Style - Schema - Manage - Import - Eclipse XML Profile
File - Settings - Plugins - "CheckStyle-IDEA"
# download: http://www.arminalter.com/public/img/attach/checkstyle/google_checks.xml
File - Setting - Other Settings - Check Style(+) # 如果这里使用的是 带有变量的 xml 文件,需要正确指定对应的 value 值
File - Settings - Editor - Inspections - Checkstyle real-time scan(√) # 开启实时 check code style
# 一般的,项目中都会给出 format.xml 文件,如 hadoop(hadoop-format.xml) / druid(druid_intellij_formatting.xml) etc.

参考

换行符

Auto CRLF

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# 提交时转换为 LF,检出时转换为 CRLF
$ git config --global core.autocrlf true
# 提交时转换为 LF,检出时不转换
$ git config --global core.autocrlf input
# 提交检出均不转换
$ git config --global core.autocrlf false

Safe CRLF

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# 拒绝提交包含混合换行符的文件
$ git config --global core.safecrlf true
# 允许提交包含混合换行符的文件
$ git config --global core.safecrlf false
# 提交包含混合换行符的文件时给出警告
$ git config --global core.safecrlf warn

整合持续集成

Travis

.travis.yml

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language:
- java
- scala
- python
- groovy
os:
- windows
jdk:
- oraclejdk8
scala:
- 2.11.8
python:
- 2.7.12
groovy:
- 2.3.11
before_install: sudo echo "MAVEN_OPTS='-Xmx2048m -Xms1024m -Dorg.slf4j.simpleLogger.defaultLogLevel=error'" > ~/.mavenrc
script:
- mvn clean install -B && mvn clean -B
env:
global:
- MAVEN_OPTS: "-Xmx2048m -Xms1024m -Dorg.slf4j.simpleLogger.defaultLogLevel=error"
sudo: required
cache:
directories:
- $HOME/.m2

效果图

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[![Build Status](https://travis-ci.org/asdf2014/yuzhouwan.svg?branch=master)](https://travis-ci.org/asdf2014/yuzhouwan)

Build Status

Tips: Full code is here.

设置编辑器

在 Mac 下设置 sublime 作为编辑器

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# 修改 git 配置文件
$ vim ~/.gitconfig
[core]
editor = /Applications/Sublime\\ Text.app/Contents/SharedSupport/bin/subl -n -w
# 或者通过命令行配置
$ git config --global core.editor "/Applications/Sublime\ Text.app/Contents/SharedSupport/bin/subl -n -w"

英文缩写

缩写全拼含义
AKAAlso Known As也称作
BTWBy The Way顺便一提
FWIWFor What It´s Worth无论如何
FWIAWFor What It´s All Worth不管有没有用(FWIW 含义一样,且 FWIW 更常用一些)
FYIFor Your Information供你参考
IMHOIn My Humble Opinion以我浅见
IMOIn My Opinion我的想法是
LGTMLooks Good to Me在我看来很好
OTOHOn The Other Hand另一方面
PTALPlease Take a Look请看一下
TBHTo Be Honest老实说

资料

Blog

Doc

Trick

Emoji

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  • 本文作者: Benedict Jin
  • 本文链接: https://yuzhouwan.com/posts/30041/
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